Establish the awareness of big printing

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Establish the awareness of big printing

printing is an extremely important part of the modern information industry. It turns the "invisible" telecommunications, words and graphics into "the main configuration of tangible products machinery:", "portable" and exchangeable information. Therefore, printing is a tool for popularizing culture and education and spreading knowledge. The theories of predecessors depend on preservation and the experience of modern people depends on exchange. At the same time, due to the development of printing technology, printing can not only be used for paper reprint, but also on silk, cloth, wood, metal, plastic, glass, ceramics and other carriers. Therefore, the printing industry has become one of the important industries in the economic activities of every country, and it is an industrial sector that cannot be grasped by hydraulic pressure to develop the national economy. Thus, printing involves the construction of spiritual civilization and material civilization, serving spiritual and material civilization. Printing has long been out of paper as the carrier, and book printing is the traditional narrow concept of printing

modern printing relies on electronic technology, which also breaks through various traditional boundaries, and directly converts or translates the information with national cultural characteristics through the application of computers. Whether Chinese characters are simplified or traditional, Chinese, Japanese or English can be compatible and converted on one computer, and can also be spoken, spoken into words, and words into spoken language. With this multifunctional and multimedia technology, it will further facilitate the international exchange of information

printing should serve the construction of two civilizations and establish a sense of big printing, which is the focus of this chapter

first, what is the consciousness of big printing

from the process of the reform of the printing industry system, it can be seen that decentralized and closed management is a serious obstacle to the development of modern printing industry. To adopt modern printing technology and develop modern printing industry, we must establish the consciousness of big printing in the process of reform as the guiding ideology to promote the progress of printing technology and improve the management level of printing industry

the so-called "big printing consciousness" first refers to the close integration of industrial departments related to printing, so that printing and equipment industry can develop synchronously, and the printing industry can get the support of domestic related industries. Figuratively speaking, we can compare the printing industry to the body of an aircraft, with the printing equipment manufacturing industry as the right wing and the printing equipment industry as the left wing. Only by closely combining the body with the left and right wings can we form a high-efficiency aircraft and ensure the normal operation of the machine. Therefore, the combination of printing industry and related industries is the large printing industry system. Movable type printing was first invented in China in history. It was invented by Bi Sheng in China more than 400 years earlier than Gutenberg in Europe. Although clay movable type, tin movable type, copper movable type and wood movable type are also used, they have never become the main body of printing, and woodblock printing occupies the dominant position. Today, the reasons are: first, it failed to get the support of the government and the attention of the society; second, there was no basis for relevant technical research and material production. It was not until 900 years later that it was gradually imported and gradually developed from abroad. This historical process of development is really worthy of our careful summary. Without the development of machinery manufacturing industry, metallurgy industry, chemical industry and paper industry, the printing industry can only stagnate in the semi industrial era, and cannot achieve the progress of the printing industry and enter the era of mechanization and electronization

After the founding of new China (1949), the implementation of the planned economic system changed the situation that printing did not develop at the same time as related industries, overcame the situation that everything depended on foreign imports in the first half of the 20th century, and established a solid material and technological foundation for the development and popularization of the printing industry. Although these were completed under the planned economy and had certain defects, they still played a certain role in promoting the development of the printing industry. It completely completed the first revolution of Chinese printing, and prepared the necessary preliminary work for the second revolution of printing - electronization

in the 1980s, China entered the period of technological transformation of the printing industry. With the approval of the State Council, a printing technology transformation coordination group was established in the National Economic Commission. As the name suggests, the task of this group is to integrate the direction of printing technology progress, organize printing and related industrial departments to work out development plans, so as to achieve the synchronous development of printing equipment and printing equipment, and adapt to the technological transformation of the printing industry. Especially under the guidance of the national reform and opening-up policy, various advanced technologies have been introduced from abroad, which has improved the starting point of China's scientific research and accelerated the pace of printing technology transformation. This successful example is based on the idea of establishing the awareness of big printing

the second content of the so-called big printing consciousness refers to the wide range of applications of printing

it has been a habit for many years that "printing is printing books and newspapers" seems to have become a fixed concept in society, limiting the scope of printing application to the small circle of printing books and newspapers. From the perspective of the national industrial management system, the same is true. Whether it is the Publishing Bureau initially set up under the Ministry of culture or the independent National Publishing Bureau later, its task is only to manage the printing of books (Books), paintings (periodicals), and even newspaper printing. Coupled with the decentralized and closed policy of "who uses, who builds, and who manages", it increasingly shows the segmentation of the printing industry, which has failed to form an independent industrial sector for a long time

in fact, with the progress of printing, its application scope continues to expand, including printing books and periodicals, newspapers, banknotes, securities, packaging and decoration, business sundries and a large number of industrial products. The printing materials are expanded from paper to various carriers. To exaggerate, except for water and air, satisfactory words and pictures can be printed on all objects with shaped surfaces according to different requirements. As long as each printing factory has the awareness of large-scale printing, opens to the society, makes market research to the society, breaks through the small circle of book and newspaper printing, and looks for the world of large-scale printing, printing and diversified business is promising

from the above, we can see the importance of putting forward social cooperation and establishing the awareness of big printing

$page break $2. Three aspects of large-scale printing

while proposing the technological transformation of the printing industry, three aspects of printing related industries will be included in the transformation plan. During the sixth and seventh five-year plans of the country, in addition to the transformation of 16 large and medium-sized printing enterprises, 54 related industrial enterprises will be included in the plan. Among them, there are 7 paper-making enterprises, 25 equipment enterprises and 20 equipment manufacturing enterprises:

1 In terms of mechanical and electrical equipment,

it is mainly that the mechanical and electronic industry departments have gradually provided the following products according to the requirements of the printing industry through domestic scientific research and foreign technology introduction, digestion and absorption:

typesetting equipment has been provided from manual Phototypesetter to Huaguang IV computer typesetting system equipment, scientific printing batch processing and interactive microcomputer typesetting system equipment, thus arming the needs of books, newspapers and light printing typesetting, From "hot discharge" to "cold discharge", throw away the word lead

, and enter the era of electronic typesetting from lead discharge

color separation and plate making equipment electronic color separation machine is an indispensable equipment for color development and utilization of new materials with high safety and good quality performance to improve the quality of color printing. It has successively provided medium and low-grade color separation machines and medium and high-grade 399 electronic color separation machines. While further testing the high-grade color separation machine 345, it has also researched and developed (input), typesetting and plate making linkage machines, which directly make the text and picture samples on the PS plate, and then put them on the machine for printing

the equipment used for plate making includes program-controlled camera, automatic printer, continuous printer, and liquid resin plate making machine

the printing equipment has successively provided lithographic offset printing machine, four open four-color sheet fed offset printing machine, folio sheet fed four-color offset printing machine, web rotary offset printing machine and four-color offset printing machine, automatic indentation machine, die-cutting machine, bronzing machine and hot plastic machine for book and newspaper printing and packaging printing, and also provided small offset printing machine for light printing brush

binding equipment mainly includes horse riding staple binding machine, full sheet folding machine, three side book cutting machine, paperback binding machine, hardcover linkage line, thread binding linkage line, etc

2. In terms of printing equipment,

mainly chemical and light industrial products, and various chemical materials for plate making include: laser phototypesetting film, electronic color separations, photographic paper, PS plate (including aluminum base and paper base plate), zinc oxide plate, printing and coating, and resin plate

for printing, there are various inks, blanket, rubber roller, vacuum pump for paper suction and feeding, etc

3. In terms of printing paper,

in order to meet the needs of offset printing and high-quality picture albums, we first provided a large amount of consumption paper, and then successively provided offset printing paper, high-quality coated paper, etc. Due to the insufficient supply of wood in China, wood pulp paper is far less than straw pulp paper, which limits the production of high-quality printing paper and has to be supplemented by a certain amount of imported paper

some of the above-mentioned equipment and equipment have been developed or put into production in the 1970s, and have been improved in the 1980s. In terms of variety, it can basically meet the needs of the domestic printing industry. This has greatly promoted the progress of printing technology transformation. It is unimaginable without the unified coordination and synchronous development of these three aspects

revitalizing the printing industry is closely related to the synchronous development of related industries. Without the matching and supply of related industries, it is impossible to realize the modernization of the printing industry. We have our own historical experience. After Bi Sheng advocated movable type printing, it took more than 400 years for Gutenberg to create movable type printing. However, movable type printing was soon promoted in Europe because of the complementary of related industries, from lead alloy words to corresponding inks, paper to required mechanical equipment. Since the founding of new China in 1949, the development and progress of the printing industry also depend on the synchronous development of related industries. Although there is a division of labor in society, any division of labor has its mutual adaptation and cooperation, which is the source of the understanding and implementation of the concept of "system engineering" in modern production and practitioners

$page break $3. Five service objects of big printing

under the requirements of modern economy and culture, the objects of printing services can be roughly divided into five markets: Book and newspaper printing, safety printing, packaging printing, commercial parts printing and industrial products printing. These five markets have both similarities and characteristics for the printing industry. They are described as follows:

1 Book and newspaper printing

book and newspaper printing is the largest printing market. In 1992, a total of 92148 books were published nationwide, including 73625 books, 14010 textbooks and 4513 pictures, equivalent to 666000 tons of paper, an increase of 2.83% over the previous year; In 1992, a total of 6486 magazines were published, with an average number of 205million copies printed, equivalent to 147400 tons of paper, an increase of 7.1% over the previous year, and the total number of prints increased by 15.24%. China ranks first in the world in the number and circulation of books published annually; In 1992, there were 1657 kinds of newspapers nationwide, with a total circulation of 25.8 billion copies, equivalent to 549200 tons of paper, which is also among the best in the world. In order to meet such huge printing requirements, there are about 1800 book and newspaper printing plants in the country, with a total staff of about 1.6 million

although newspapers have only been published for more than a hundred years, books and periodicals have been published for more than 1000 years since the Tang Dynasty

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