The hottest printing and revolution Gutenberg brou

2022-09-23
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Printing and Revolution: Gutenberg brought Europe out of the age of ignorance

release date: Source: Yi Shi editor: Yu Jia Views: 2390 copyright and disclaimer

core note: if the development of storytelling and writing brings the first communication change, then the second change comes with printing. If every text should be copied by hand, only a few manuscripts can be circulated. The invention of printing and more convenient movable type printing have promoted the massive publication of various text materials and made them more widely disseminated. It has a great impact on society, culture and knowledge

[China Packaging News] if the development of book writing has brought the first exchange change, then the second change will come with printing. If every text should be copied by hand, only a few manuscripts can be circulated. The invention of printing and more convenient movable type printing have promoted the massive publication of various text materials and made them more widely disseminated. It has a great impact on society, culture and knowledge

as early as the 3rd century A.D., Chinese people began to use wood engraving to print words and decorative patterns on textiles and paper (also their invention). The so-called block printing is to carve a raised text or image relief on the wood. In the 9th century A.D., people could already print whole books; In the 14th century, independent single character engraving appeared, and more than 80000 Chinese characters can be combined arbitrarily according to the content of the article. This is movable type printing. However, due to the large number of Chinese characters, China still relies on block printing to a large extent, and engraving is carried out on a page by page basis. In the 14th century, the Korean people invented the metal movable type impression. Affected by this, until the mid-19th century, the literacy rate in East Asia was higher than that in other parts of the world

if we want to eliminate customs by regulating the printing industry, we also have to regulate all kinds of enjoyable recreational activities

- John Milton, on freedom of the press (1644)

Roman characters are simple in writing and relatively few in number, making them very suitable for movable type printing. In the mid-15th century, Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith and publisher in Germany, invented a printing method that lasted for 500 years. This method is not made of wood movable type for assembly printing, but uses alloys of lead, tin and antimony with lower melting points. In this way, as long as a letter or punctuation type is made, it can be used at any time. These fonts are placed side by side on a board, and the spacing of the fonts is adjusted by inserting wedge-shaped metal between them to form a unified width and height. It takes only one day to arrange the layout of a page, and then pressure is applied to transfer the ink from letterpress to the paper. In 1455, Gutenberg printed his first book, the Latin Bible. This new technology quickly began to spread. In 1475, William Caxton printed the first English book. By the end of this century, people-oriented, Europe has published millions of books. By 1800, this figure had risen to 2billion

subsequently, the torrent of ideas, knowledge and ideas spread widely through books, newspapers, narrative poems, pamphlets and other forms, and significantly improved the literacy rate - which had been a taboo for monks and a small number of secular elites before. The popularization of printing means that the classics excavated by humanist scholars in the Renaissance will be seen again. It also spread the thoughts of Protestant reformers in Europe like wildfire, expanding the support base of religious reform

therefore, it is not surprising that those in power are suspicious of the popularization of knowledge and the criticism and political radicalism it brings. Most countries - and the Roman Catholic Church - try to decide what can be published and read, and what cannot be published. Even if books are censored or burned, the popularity of printing technology means that someone will always produce more copies

in the so-called "Dark Age" in Europe, most of the scientific achievements of the ancient Greeks have been forgotten or denounced as heretical heresy, which will give them a huge advantage in time and cost. Thanks to those Arab scholars, most of this knowledge is preserved. It is these scholars who have made equally significant contributions to science, such as mathematics and Chemistry (words such as algebra and alcohol come from Arabic)

At the other end of the world, China is also a hotbed of technological innovation. Many inventions were born there, including compass, gunpowder, papermaking and printing. Finally, the "four great inventions" spread to the west one after another

although the knowledge of ancient Greece was rediscovered, it did not immediately inspire new inspiration in Europe at that time. Scholars believe that the ancient Greeks are the ultimate authority, especially when theologians integrate Greek philosophy into Roman Catholic doctrine, anyone who questions the authority will be regarded as heresy

One of the core teachings of the church is that God created human beings, and the earth is located in the center of the universe. This can be echoed by the Greek geographer Ptolemy's Cosmology (1st century A.D.). However, another early scientist, Aristarchus of Samos (3rd century BC), also proposed that the earth moves around the sun. In the 16th century, a similar heliocentric theory was reintroduced by the Polish astronomer Nicholas Copernicus. Although mathematical calculations and practical observations confirmed this, Copernicus did not dare to express his views until 1543, the year of his death. When Galileo, an Italian physicist and astronomer, published evidence in support of Copernicus, the Roman Catholic Church took him to court. In 1633, under the threat of being burned as a heresy, he gave up his judgment. However, Galileo's contribution to modern science is still huge, especially his application of mathematics to physics

the investigation of physical causes takes up a lot of my time. My goal is to prove that the movement of celestial bodies is not some kind of sacred existence similar to life, but more like a clock

- Kepler said in a letter to the sponsor (1605). On the basis of Copernicus' research, he found the trajectory of planetary motion

the combination of mathematical analysis and observation and experiment has become a unique feature in modern scientific research. General laws come from specific observations of the real world - this method was not successfully confirmed until Isaac Newton published his laws of universal gravitation and three laws of motion in 1687, and expounded the interaction between force and objects. Pressure from the mechanical universe becomes a regular and predictable process, and can be mathematically defined. The prestige of Newton's theory helps ensure that the concepts, methods, languages, and metaphors used to explain them are applied to all branches of knowledge

in other fields of science, breakthroughs and the largest 'new energy' should exist like energy conservation. At the time when Copernicus published the heliocentric theory, the anatomist Andreas visari of Flanders also published the structure of the human body. This book is based on his own experience in anatomy, rather than the theory of ancient Greek doctor Galen, the supreme authority in the field at that time. Also in the 16th century, Galen's medical theory was challenged by the Swiss German doctor palachelsus. Since then, medieval alchemy has gradually evolved to modern chemistry, and the division of medicine has become increasingly recognized

Galen inherited Aristotle's theory that the world is based on the balance of four elements (earth, water, air and fire). Newton's contemporary, Robert Boyle, put forward a completely different concept - chemical element. Newton and Boyle both belonged to the Royal Society of England established in 1600 A.D. It is only one of many scientific colleges established in Europe in the 17th-18th century A.D. Soon, science has been able to compete with traditional classics. At that time, gentlemen regarded talking about science as a decent activity

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